The radiological findings of hypoglycemic encephalopathy: A case report with high b value DWI analysis

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Abstract

Rationale:

Hypoglycemic encephalopathy is a metabolic encephalopathy. Clinical risk is mixed with acute cerebrovascular disease, so it is critical to identify and make the correct diagnosis of the disease as early as possible.

Patient concerns:

Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic encephalopathy, who presented confusion and unconsciousness for 1 day.

Diagnoses:

In addition to blood-related indicators and medical histories, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), can be valuable to the diagnosis of hypoglycemic encephalopathy, which showed diffuse high-signal intensity in the cerebral cortex, and also the hippocampus, head of the caudate nucleus, the lentiform nucleus, and corpus callosum.

Interventions:

Intravenous glucose injection and drip was performed repeatedly. The blood glucose levels were gradually corrected, and the resulting blood glucose was 6.5 mmol/L.

Outcomes:

The prognosis depends on the degree of hypoglycemia, duration, and condition of the organism. Due to the long duration of hypoglycemia, unfortunately, the patient died.

Lessons:

It is critical to diagnose hypoglycemic encephalopathy as early as possible. MRI reveals diffuse abnormal intensity in the cortex and basal ganglia region. DWI using high b values provides important information for diagnosis.

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