Xanthatin triggers Chk1-mediated DNA damage response and destabilizes Cdc25Cvialysosomal degradation in lung cancer cells

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Previous studies had shown that xanthatin, a natural xanthanolide sesquiterpene lactone, could induce mitotic arrest and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Here, we examined whether the DNA damage response (DDR) could be a primary cytotoxic event underlying xanthatin-mediated anti-tumor activity. Using EdU incorporation assay in combination with novel imaging flow cytometry, our data indicated that xanthatin suppressed DNA replication, prevented cells from G2/M entry and increased the spot count of γH2AX nuclear foci. Given that checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) represents a core component in DDR-mediated cell cycle transition and the phosphorylation on Ser-345 is essential for kinase activation and function, we surprisingly found xanthatin distinctly modulated Ser-345 phosphorylation of Chk1 in A549 and H1299 cells. Further investigation on Cdc25C/CDK1/CyclinB1 signaling cascade in the absence or presence of pharmacological DDR inhibitors showed that xanthatin directly destabilized the protein levels of Cdc25C, and recovery of p53 expression in p53-deficient H1299 cells further intensified xanthatin-mediated inhibition of Cdc25C, suggesting p53-dependent regulation of Cdc25C in a DDR machinery. Moreover, exogenous expression of Cdc25C was also substantially repressed by xanthatin and partially impaired xanthatin-induced G2 arrest. In addition, xanthatin could induce accumulation of ubiquitinated Cdc25C without undergoing further proteasomal degradation. However, an alternative lysosomal proteolysis of Cdc25C was observed. Interestingly, lysosome-like vesicles were produced upon xanthatin treatment, accompanied by rapid accumulation of lysosomal associated membrane protein LAPM-1. Furthermore, vacuolar proton (V)-ATPases inhibitor bafilomycin A1 and lysosomal proteases inhibitor leupeptin could remarkably overturn the levels of Cdc25C in xanthatin-treated H1299 cells. Altogether, these data provide insight into how xanthatin can be effectively targeted DDR molecules towards certain tumors.

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