A Mindful Approach to Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support for Veterans

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine feasibility, satisfaction, and preliminary effects of Mindful Stress Reduction in Diabetes Education (Mind-STRIDE), a mindfulness-based intervention for veterans.

Methods

The study used a single-group pretest-posttest repeated-measures design. The 90-minute Mind-STRIDE training, adapted from Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), was provided as the final component of a half-day diabetes self-management education class at a Veterans Affairs (VA) outpatient diabetes clinic. Following initial training, participants were asked to practice mindfulness at home for 10 minutes each day during the 3-month study. Study recruitment and retention were calculated as rates. Veteran and diabetes educator satisfaction were assessed by rating scales and open-ended comments. Psychosocial-behavioral and metabolic outcomes were assessed at baseline and 3 months after initial training. Bivariate correlations were performed to describe relationships between mindfulness and other outcome variables. Gain scores and Wilcoxon matched-pair signed rank tests were used to assess pre to post changes; Cohen’s d was applied to estimate the magnitude of effects.

Results

Twenty-eight of 49 eligible veterans (57%) enrolled in the study. Of those, 11 veterans (39%) demonstrated participation in home practice, and 20 veterans (71%) completed the study. Overall, participants and diabetes educators were highly satisfied with the Mind-STRIDE intervention. Significant improvements were found in diabetes distress, diabetes self-efficacy, diabetes self-management behaviors, mindful-describing, and A1C.

Conclusion

Results suggest feasibility, satisfaction, and positive preliminary effects. Efficacy testing by randomized controlled trial with analysis of covariance structures is warranted.

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