Hormones and fish monosex farming: A spotlight on immunity

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Aquaculture is a promising and developing industry worldwide. One of the first step in monosex culturing, particularly in Nile tilapia, is the production of all-male fry; hormones are widely used in this respect. It is known that exogenous treatment with hormones disrupts various systems in the body including the immune and endocrine systems. There has been a growing interest in how hormones shape the biology of the fish. Many researchers all over the world explored how androgen can interact with many of the body systems; however, rarely any of them tried to improve the hormonal method or to find an alternative. The gate is open for research in this field. This review focusses on the potential effects of hormones, particularly androgens on fish immunity, and the up to date solutions (however, they are rare).Graphical abstractHighlightsHormones are widely used in aquaculture particularly androgens.Androgens and oestrogens have a vital role in the immune system function.Exogenous hormones play a vital role in shaping and modulating the immune system capacity and response.

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