Endovascular treatment for cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: predictors of outcome and retreatment

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Abstract

Objective

Although endovascular therapy has been widely adopted for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), its effect on clinical outcomes remains incompletely understood. The aims of this retrospective cohort study are to evaluate the outcomes of endovascular intervention for post-aSAH vasospasm and identify predictors of functional independence at discharge and repeat endovascular vasospasm treatment.

Methods

We assessed the baseline and outcomes data for patients with aSAH who underwent endovascular vasospasm treatment at our institution, including intra-arterial (IA) vasodilator infusion and angioplasty. Statistical analyses were performed to determine factors associated with good outcome at discharge (modified Rankin Scale 0–2) and repeat endovascular vasospasm treatment.

Results

The study cohort comprised 159 patients with a mean age of 52 years. Good outcome was achieved in 17% of patients at discharge (26/150 patients), with an in-hospital mortality rate of 22% (33/150 patients). In the multivariate analysis, age (OR 0.895; p=0.009) and positive smoking status (OR 0.206; p=0.040) were negative independent predictors of good outcome. Endovascular retreatment was performed in 34% (53/156 patients). In the multivariate analysis, older age (OR 0.950; p=0.004), symptomatic vasospasm (OR 0.441; p=0.046), initial treatment with angioplasty alone (OR 0.096; p=0.039), and initial treatment with combined IA vasodilator infusion and angioplasty (OR 0.342; p=0.026) were negative independent predictors of retreatment.

Conclusion

We found a modest rate of functional independence at discharge in patients with aSAH who underwent endovascular vasospasm treatment. Older patients and smokers had worse functional outcomes at discharge. Initial use of angioplasty appears to decrease the need for subsequent retreatment.

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