Adaptation and Validation of the Combined Comorbidity Score for ICD-10-CM

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Abstract

Background:

The combined comorbidity score, which merges the Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity indices, uses the ninth revision of the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). In October 2015, the United States adopted the 10th revision (ICD-10-CM).

Objective:

The objective of this study is to examine different coding algorithms for the ICD-10-CM combined comorbidity score and compare their performance to the original ICD-9-CM score.

Methods:

Four ICD-10-CM coding algorithms were defined: 2 using General Equivalence Mappings (GEMs), one based on ICD-10-CA (Canadian modification) codes for Charlson and Elixhauser measures, and one including codes from all 3 algorithms. We used claims data from the Clinfomatics Data Mart to identify 2 cohorts. The ICD-10-CM cohort comprised patients who had a hospitalization between January 1, 2016 and March 1, 2016. The ICD-9-CM cohort comprised patients who had a hospitalization between January 1, 2015 and March 1, 2015. We used logistic regression models to predict 30-day hospital readmission for the original score in the ICD-9-CM cohort and for each ICD-10-CM algorithm in the ICD-10-CM cohort.

Results:

Distributions of each version of the score were similar. The algorithm based on ICD-10-CA codes [c-statistic, 0.646; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.640–0.653] had the most similar discrimination for readmission to the ICD-9-CM version (c, 0.646; 95% CI, 0.639–0.653), but combining all identified ICD-10-CM codes had the highest c-statistic (c, 0.651; 95% CI, 0.644–0.657).

Conclusions:

We propose an ICD-10-CM version of the combined comorbidity score that includes codes identified by ICD-10-CA and GEMs. Compared with the original score, it has similar performance in predicting readmission in a population of United States commercially insured individuals.

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