Feasibility of a 3D Printed Patient-Specific Model System to Determine Hemodynamic Energy Delivery During Extracorporeal Circulation
Although many have studied the effects of pulsatile flow on extracorporeal circulation, its advantages remain controversial. One reason for this situation is that in most studies, pulsatility was evaluated using an in vitro model system. The most serious disadvantage of such model systems is that they lack consideration of anatomical variations due to the use of a straight tubing line to mimic the aorta. In the current study, the authors constructed and tested the feasibility of a three-dimensional (3D) printed, patient-specific, silicone aortic model to determine whether aortic cannula tip positional changes affect energy equivalent pressure (EEP) and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) in carotid arteries. Donovan model systems were connected to a pulsatile pump (Korea hybrid ventricular assist device [KH-VAD]; Korea Artificial Organ Center, Seoul, Korea) and a 3D printed silicone model of the ascending aorta. The KH-VAD mimicked the heart, and another pulsatile pump (Twin-Pulse Life Support [T-PLS]; Newheartbio Co., Seoul, Korea) was connected to an aortic cannula, which was inserted at three different tip positions. Using this 3D printed silicone model of the ascending aorta, it was found that EEP and SHE of both right and left carotid arteries were significantly affected by aortic cannula tip position. The authors suggest that the described 3D printed, patient-specific, aorta model provides a feasible option to measure hemodynamic energy accurately given the considerable anatomical differences of model circuits.