The Rate of Acute Kidney Injury After Total Hip Arthroplasty Is Low but Increases Significantly in Patients with Specific Comorbidities

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Abstract

Background:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the rate and risk factors associated with the development of acute kidney injury after total hip arthroplasty, including the perioperative use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Methods:

We retrospectively collected the demographic and comorbidity data of all patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty between 2004 and 2014 at our institution (n = 8,949). We conducted analyses of the entire cohort and a nested case-control subset. Subjects who developed acute kidney injury were matched by age, sex, and year of surgical procedure to subjects without acute kidney injury. Variables associated with acute kidney injury were determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions.

Results:

The mean patient age (and standard deviation) was 64.6 ± 13.8 years, 48.6% of patients were male, and 114 cases (1.1%) developed acute kidney injury, mostly stage 1 (79%). Variables associated with acute kidney injury included older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.4 per decade; p < 0.001), male sex (OR, 1.78; p = 0.005), chronic kidney disease (OR, 4.6; p < 0.001), heart failure (OR, 4.5; p < 0.001), diabetes (OR, 2.1; p < 0.001), and hypertension (OR, 2.1; p = 0.007). The results were consistent in the case-control analysis. NSAIDs were not associated with acute kidney injury (OR, 1.26; p = 0.36), but were avoided in subjects at risk, making any interpretation difficult because of confounding. A risk model for acute kidney injury after total hip arthroplasty was developed for clinical use and had good discrimination (area under the curve, 0.82; p < 0.001).

Conclusions:

The rate of acute kidney injury after total hip arthroplasty is low, but increases significantly, from <1% to >20%, in those with several independent risk factors present preoperatively. Increasing awareness of these risk factors may help to decrease the risk of acute kidney injury after total hip arthroplasty.

Level of Evidence:

Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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