Serum cystatin C is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: A retrospective study
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the serum cystatin C level and cardiovascular disease risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods:
We studied 523 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and calculated estimated 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (%). Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity ≥1700 ms, indicating the presence of arterial stiffness.Results:
Cystatin C level was significantly higher in the subclinical atherosclerosis group (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity ≥ 1700 ms) than in the non-subclinical atherosclerosis group (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity < 1700 ms) (7.54 ± 3.15 mg/L vs 10.04 ± 5.12 mg/L, p < 0.001). Subclinical atherosclerosis was mainly determined by age, duration of diabetes and cystatin C level, but not by serum creatinine, 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease score and estimated glomerular filtration rate in the multiple linear regression analysis. In addition, an increase in cystatin C level was independently associated with the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking, hypertension, 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score, serum creatinine level, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and haemoglobin A1c (odds ratio = 1.200, 95% confidence interval: 1.04–1.38, p = 0.011).Conclusion:
Serum cystatin C level was significantly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. This result suggests that an increase in cystatin C level could be a valuable surrogate marker for the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.