Recognition and Management of Pediatric Salt Toxicity

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Abstract

Objectives

Immediate recognition of salt toxicity and aggressive resuscitative measures are critical in the treatment of this lethal poisoning. Despite heroic measures, pediatric deaths due to salt toxicity still occur from irreversible neurological damage. The objective of this article is to review the relevant literature and offer a therapeutic algorithm for the management of pediatric patients presenting with salt toxicity.

Methods

A literature search for cases of salt toxicity was conducted. Articles in English that were available electronically through PubMed and Google Scholar were reviewed.

Results

Nineteen cases and case series of salt toxicity were located using our search strategy. Salt poisoning has a distinct pathophysiology compared with hypernatremia, most notable for the lack of formation of idiogenic osmoles.

Conclusions

The approach to treatment differs between salt toxicity and hypernatremia, focusing on rapid correction of serum osmolality rather than gradual normalization of serum sodium concentrations. Consultation of nephrology and child protection services are strongly recommended in the comprehensive treatment approach.

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