Human Umbilical Vessels: Choosing the Optimal Decellularization Method
There is an increasing demand of small-diameter vascular grafts for treatment of circulatory pathologies. Decellularization offers the possibility of using human blood vessels as scaffolds to create vascular grafts. Umbilical vessels have great potential because of their availability and morphological characteristics. Various decellularization techniques have been used in umbilical vessels, but consensus on which is the most appropriate has not yet been reached. The objective of this review is to analyze the morphological and biomechanical characteristics of decellularized human umbilical arteries and veins with different techniques. Evidence indicates that the umbilical vessels are a viable option to develop small-diameter vascular grafts. Detergents are the agents most often used and with most evidence. However, further studies are needed to accurately analyze the components of the extracellular matrix and biomechanical characteristics, as well as the capacity for recellularization and in vivo functionality.