Relationship Between Initial Vancomycin Trough Levels and Early-Onset Vancomycin-Associated Nephrotoxicity in Critically Ill Patients
Appropriate initial dosing of vancomycin (VCM) is important in improving survival and in preventing nephrotoxicity in critically ill patients, but the potential relationship between initial VCM trough levels and early-onset nephrotoxicity remains unclear. We examined the relationship between initial VCM trough levels and early-onset VCM-associated nephrotoxicity.Methods:
We performed a retrospective study of patients who had therapeutic drug monitoring of VCM with initial trough levels within 4 days after the beginning of VCM administration. We excluded patients who received renal replacement therapy from 2 days before to 7 days after the beginning of VCM administration, were younger than 18 years, or had renal dysfunction before the beginning of VCM administration. Early-onset VCM-associated nephrotoxicity was defined as an increase in serum creatinine level of ≥0.5 mg/dL (44.2 μmol/L) or 50% above baseline for 2 or more consecutive days within 7 days after the beginning of VCM administration.Results:
Among 109 enrolled patients, 13 patients had early-onset VCM-associated nephrotoxicity. Its incidence rate was 31.3% in patients with initial trough levels of ≥20g/mL, which was significantly higher than 6.3% in patients with initial trough levels of <10 mg/L. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that early-onset VCM-associated nephrotoxicity was associated with initial trough levels of ≥20 mg/L (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–19.1) and with vasopressor use (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–19.1). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that the probability of nonnephrotoxicity for patients with initial VCM trough levels of ≥20 mg/L was lower compared with patients with trough levels of <15 mg/L.Conclusions:
Initial trough levels of ≥20 mg/L but not ≥15 mg/L were associated with early-onset VCM-associated nephrotoxicity in critically ill patients. Future prospective studies are needed to examine outcomes in critically ill patients achieving initial VCM trough levels of 15–20 mg/L.