Haemophilus parasuisinfection activates NOD1/2-RIP2 signaling pathway in PK-15 cells
Haemophilus parasuis, an important swine pathogen, was recently proven able to invade into endothelial or epithelial cell in vitro. NOD1/2 are specialized NLRs that participate in the recognition of pathogens able to invade intracellularly and therefore, we assessed that the contribution of NOD1/2 to inflammation responses during H. parasuis infection. We observed that H. parasuis infection enhanced NOD2 expression and RIP2 phosphorylation in porcine kidney 15 cells. Our results also showed that knock down of NOD1/2 or RIP2 expression respectively significantly decreased H. parasuis-induced NF-κB activity, while the phosphorylation level of p38, JNK or ERK was not changed. Moreover, real-time PCR result showed that NOD1, NOD2 or RIP2 was involved in the expression of CCL4, CCL5 and IL-8. Inhibition of NOD1 and NOD2 significantly reduced CCL5 promoter activity, even in a more effective way compared with inhibition of TLR.