Recently we found that guanylin (Gn) and its receptor, guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), are uniquely expressed in the mesenteric macrophages of some diet-resistant rats and that double-transgenic (dTg) rats overexpressing Gn and GC-C in macrophages demonstrate reduced fatty acid synthase and fat accumulation in fat tissue even when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Lipid accumulation and fatty acid synthase mRNA levels in cocultured dTg rat adipocytes and macrophages were reduced compared with those in adipocytes cultured with WT rat macrophages. Here, we investigated whether Interleukin-15 (IL-15) derived from Gn–GC-C-expressing macrophages regulates lipid accumulation in adipocytes. IL-15 inhibited fatty acid synthase and lipid accumulation via STAT5 in cultured adipocytes. IL-15 mRNA and protein levels in the mesenteric fat of HFD-fed dTg rats were significantly higher than those of HFD-fed WT rats. Phosphorylated STAT5 levels in the mesenteric fat of HFD-fed dTg rats were increased compared with those of HFD-fed WT rats. In addition, the mRNA level of fatty acid synthase in the mesenteric fat was lower in HFD-fed dTg rats than in HFD-fed WT rats. These results support the hypothesis that IL-15 secreted from Gn–GC-C-expressing macrophages contributes to the inhibition of fatty acid synthase and lipid accumulation in adipocytes, leading to obesity resistance.