Perioperative Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A Systematic Review of Published Cases
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a condition that is characterized as a transient ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and is usually triggered by an acute medical illness or intense physical or emotional stress. Multiple cases of perioperative TCM (pTCM) have been reported from around the world, but a qualitative analysis of these cases has not yet been done. For this systematic review, we searched PubMed for case reports and case series of pTCM published from 1966 to April 2015 with the objective being to evaluate whether differences in demographics, clinical features and outcomes exist between pTCM and nonperioperative (npTCM), as well as to attempt to identify any predictors of the severe form of pTCM, which requires mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices or leads to death. A total of 93 articles describing 102 cases were retrieved and reviewed. The findings were compared with the analysis of the International Takotsubo Registry by Templin et al and a systematic review of mainly non-perioperative TCM (npTCM) by Gianni et al. Although we were unable to identify definitive risk factors for pTCM, our review suggests that pTCM appears to occur in younger patients and with a lower likelihood of ST segment elevations and T-wave abnormalities than in npTCM. No demographic or clinical factors were identified that were predictive of more severe outcomes. As TCM in general can be a life-threatening event, it would therefore be prudent to consider pTCM within a differential diagnosis in any patient who decompensates in the perioperative period.