The presence of atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Research and data on CVD risk have been derived primarily from individuals aged 55 years or older, and assessment of CVD risk among young and middle-aged adults seldom has been studied. The use of ultrasonography to measure carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and carotid plaque appears to have utility to detect subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic adults. This study evaluated the presence of carotid plaque using ultrasonography among healthy young and middle-aged adults.Methods
Participants were men and women recruited in Miami, Florida, and were 18 to 50 years old with no history of CVD. Participants underwent a general physical examination and carotid artery ultrasonography to evaluate carotid IMT and carotid plaque.Results
From a total of 173 participants with a mean age of 34 years (standard deviation 8.9), 21.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.0–27.2) were identified as having carotid plaque. IMT values ranged from 0.49 to 1.03 mm, with a mean value of 0.70 mm (standard deviation 0.09). In multivariable logistic regression older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.16, P = 0.024) and cigarette smoking (AOR 2.67, 95% CI 1.02–7.00, P = 0.045) were associated with plaque, after controlling for IMT (AOR 2.55, 95% CI 1.40–4.65, P = 0.002).Conclusions
Traditional CVD risk factors such as those evaluated in this study may fail to provide adequate predictive value of carotid atherosclerosis in younger populations with no history of CVD, because the majority of traditional risk factors identified in previous research were not associated with carotid plaque in this young sample. Further research assessing nontraditional risk factors among asymptomatic individuals is required, and the evaluation of IMT as an intervention tool to detect CVD risk in these asymptomatic populations is warranted.