Dietary threonine deficiency depressed the disease resistance, immune and physical barriers in the gills of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) under infection ofFlavobacterium columnare

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This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary threonine on the disease resistance, gill immune and physical barriers function of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juveniles were fed six iso-nitrogenous diets containing graded levels of threonine (3.99–21.66 g kg−1 diet) for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Flavobacterium columnare. Results showed that threonine deficiency (3.99 g kg−1 diet): (1) increased the gill rot morbidity after exposure to F. columnare; (2) attenuated the gill immune barrier function by decreasing antimicrobial substances production, up-regulating the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (except IL-12p40), and down-regulating the anti-inflammatory cytokines partly due to the modulation of NF-κB and TOR signaling. (3) disrupt the gill tight junction complexes by down-regulating TJs (claudin-3, -b, -c, 12, occludin, ZO-1 and ZO-2) and up-regulating TJs (claudin-7a, -7b) as well as related signaling molecule myosin light chain kinase mRNA levels (P < 0.05). (4) exacerbated the gill apoptosis by up-regulating cysteinyl aspartic acid-protease-3, 8, 9, c-Jun N-terminal kinases and mediating apoptosis related factors mRNA levels (P < 0.05); (5) exacerbated oxidative injury with increased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents (P < 0.05), decreased the antioxidant related enzymes activities and corresponding mRNA levels (except glutathione peroxidase-1b and glutathione-S-transferase-omega 2) as well as glutathione contents (P < 0.05) partly ascribe to the abridgement of NF-E2-related factor 2 signaling [Nrf2/Keap1a (not Keap1b)] in fish gill. Overall, threonine deficiency depressed the disease resistance, and impaired immune and physical barriers in fish gill. Finally, based on the gill rot morbidity and biochemical indices (immune indices LA activity and antioxidant indices MDA content), threonine requirements for juvenile grass carp (9.53–53.43 g) were estimated to be 15.32 g kg−1 diet (4.73 g 100 g−1 protein), 15.52 g kg−1 diet (4.79 g 100 g−1 protein), 15.46 g kg−1 diet (4.77 g 100 g−1 protein), respectively.


Compared with optimal threonine supplementation:

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