Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of the Central Nervous System.

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Abstract

Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS EMZBL) is a rare disease. We present a review of the literature and describe its presentation, differential diagnosis, treatment options, and outcomes. Systematic search of PubMed, Medline, and Embase databases via the Ovid engine for primary articles and case reports yielded 37 unduplicated peer-reviewed articles of CNS EMZBL. We identified 69 cases in these articles and 1 unreported case at our institution, which were included for this review's analysis. Median age at diagnosis was 55 years (range, 18-78 years), with a female preponderance of 77% (n = 54). Most common presenting symptoms were headache in 43% (n = 30), seizures in 31% (n = 22), and visual defects in 27% (n = 19). The most common treatment modalities were localized therapies, which were provided to 67% (n = 47) of cases. These included radiotherapy in 27% (n = 19), radiotherapy with surgery in 24% (n = 17), and surgery alone in 16% (n = 11). Ninety percent (n = 63) of patients had a median follow-up of 23 months. Complete remission was experienced by 77% (n = 49) patients, and 22% (n = 14) were alive with disease. Three patients had evidence of relapse, and one patient died. CNS EMZBL is an indolent, low-grade, radiosensitive lymphoma with good treatment outcomes and prognosis. It is an important differential to consider in extra-axial dural-based masses. Individualized management plans, with preference given to localized treatment options, should be considered after factoring in the site and extent of disease, its resectability, and the expected adverse effects of systemic therapy.

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