A Retrospective Propensity Score-Matched Early Thromboembolic Event Analysis of Prothrombin Complex Concentrate vs Fresh Frozen Plasma for Warfarin Reversal Prior to Emergency Neurosurgical Procedures

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Reversal of therapeutic anticoagulation prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures is required in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage. Multifactor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) promises rapid efficacy but may increase the probability of thrombotic complications compared to fresh frozen plasma (FFP).

OBJECTIVE

To compare the rate of thrombotic complications in patients treated with PCC or FFP to reverse therapeutic anticoagulation prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage at a level I trauma center.

METHODS

Sixty-three consecutive patients on warfarin therapy presenting with intracranial hemorrhage who received anticoagulation reversal prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures were retrospectively identified between 2007 and 2016. They were divided into 2 cohorts based on reversal agent, either PCC (n = 28) or FFP (n = 35). The thrombotic complications rates within 72 h of reversal were compared using the χ2 test. A multivariate propensity score matching analysis was used to limit the threat to interval validity from selection bias arising from differences in demographics, laboratory values, history, and clinical status.

RESULTS

Thrombotic complications were uncommon in this neurosurgical population, occurring in 1.59% (1/63) of treated patients. There was no significant difference in the thrombotic complication rate between groups, 3.57% (1/28; PCC group) vs 0% (0/35; FFP group). Propensity score matching analysis validated this finding after controlling for any selection bias.

CONCLUSION

In this limited sample, thrombotic complication rates were similar between use of PCC and FFP for anticoagulation reversal in the management of intracranial hemorrhage prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures.

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