Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Therapy for Thoracic Malignancies
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are patient T cells that are transduced with genetically engineered synthetic receptors to target a cancer cell surface antigen. The remarkable clinical response rates achieved by adoptive transfer of T cells that target CD19 in patients with leukemia and lymphoma have led to a growing number of clinical trials exploring CAR T-cell therapy for solid tumors. Herein, we review the evolution of adoptive T-cell therapy; highlight advances in CAR T-cell therapy for thoracic malignancies; and summarize the targets being investigated in clinical trials for patients with lung cancer, malignant pleural mesothelioma, and esophageal cancer. We further discuss the barriers to successfully translating CAR T-cell therapy for solid tumors and present strategies that have been investigated to overcome these hurdles.