Nodularin from benthic freshwater periphyton and implications for trophic transfer
In 2013 and 2015, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a survey of lotic habitats within the Susquehanna, Delaware, and Ohio River basins in Pennsylvania, USA, to screen for microcystins/nodularins (MCs/NODs) in algae communities and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Periphyton (68 from 41 sites), juvenile whole fish (153 from 19 sites) and adult fish liver (115 from 16 sites) samples were collected and screened using an Adda enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples that were positive for MCs/NODs were further analyzed using LC-MS/MS, including 14 variants of microcystin and NOD-R and the MMPB technique. The ELISA was positive for 47% of the periphyton collections, with NOD-R confirmed (0.7–82.2 ng g−1 d.w.) in 20 samples. NOD-R was confirmed in 10 of 15 positive juvenile whole fish samples (0.8–16.7 ng g−1 w.w.) and in 2 of 8 liver samples (1.7 & 2.8 ng g−1 w.w.). The MMPB method resulted in total MCs/NODs measured in periphyton (2.2–1269 ng g−1 d.w.), juvenile whole fish (5.0–210 ng g−1 d.w.) and adult livers (8.5–29.5 ng g−1 d.w.). This work illustrates that NOD-R is present in freshwater benthic algae in the USA, which has broader implications for monitoring and trophic transfer.