Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased postoperative complications and use of hospital resources in patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy

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Abstract

Background.

Rates of obesity and metabolic syndrome continue to rise worldwide; however, the impact of metabolic syndrome on outcomes following adrenalectomy has not been described. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of metabolic syndrome on postoperative 30-day morbidity, mortality, and utilization of hospital resources in a large cohort of patients undergoing elective laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

Methods.

Patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy from 2005 to 2014 were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Patients with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 who also had diabetes and hypertension requiring medications were defined as having metabolic syndrome. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed for the outcomes of 30-day mortality/morbidity, major complications, and utilization of hospital resources (prolonged duration of stay ≥3 days and requirement for perioperative blood transfusion).

Results.

Of the 3,502 patients included in the study, 395 had metabolic syndrome (11.3%). Patients with metabolic syndrome were older (P < .001) and had a greater percentage of preoperative comorbidities (P < .05) than patients without metabolic syndrome. On unadjusted analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with an increased risk for mortality/morbidity, major complications, duration of stay, operative time, and risk for blood transfusion (all P < .001). On multivariable analysis, metabolic syndrome was an independent predictor of overall mortality/morbidity (odds ratio, 1.86; P < .001), major complications (odds ratio, 1.99; P < .001), pulmonary complications (odds ratio, 1.83; P = .049), the need for blood transfusion (odds ratio, 1.94; P = .04), and prolonged length of stay (odds ratio odds ratio, 1.34; P = .02).

Conclusion.

The presence of metabolic syndrome increased the risk for postoperative complications after laparoscopic adrenalectomy and was associated with 2-fold risk for blood transfusion and 34% increased odds of a prolonged hospital stay.

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