Identical Twins with Crouzon Syndrome: Eight-Year Follow-up, Genetic Considerations, and Operative Management
A case report of monozygotic (MZ) twins with Crouzon syndrome was previously published to highlight variables in clinical presentation. The postnatal and epigenetic causes for this variation are not well understood. An 8-year follow-up discusses their pertinent clinic course with consideration of genetic and nongenetic variables. The phenotypic and symptomatic obstacles encountered since their initial assessment are reviewed, and the use of three-dimensional Medical Modeling (Golden, CO) as a preoperative planning strategy is addressed. Analyzing the longitudinal clinical course of MZ twins with syndromic craniosynostosis will help better predict and provide optimal treatment.