Invasive Validation of the Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular Filling Pressures Using the 2016 Diastolic Guidelines: Head-to-Head Comparison with the 2009 Guidelines

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Abstract

Background:

Recent American Society of Echocardiography (ASE)/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) guidelines for echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function provide a practical, simplified diagnostic algorithm for estimating LV filling pressure. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of this algorithm against invasively measured pressures and compare it with the accuracy of the previous 2009 guidelines in the same patient cohort.

Methods:

Ninety patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography immediately before left heart catheterization. Mitral inflow E/A ratio, E/e′, tricuspid regurgitation velocity, and left atrial volume index were used to estimate LV filling pressure as normal or elevated using the ASE/EACVI algorithm. Invasive LV pre-A pressure was used as a reference, with >12 mm Hg defined as elevated.

Results:

Invasive LV pre-A pressure was elevated in 40 (44%) and normal in 50 (56%) patients. The 2016 algorithm resulted in classification of 9 of 90 patients (10%) as indeterminate but estimated LV filling pressures in agreement with the invasive reference in 61 of 81 patients (75%), with sensitivity of 0.69 and specificity of 0.81. The 2009 algorithm could not definitively classify 4 of 90 patients (4.4%), but estimated LV filling pressures in agreement with the invasive reference in 64 of 86 patients (74%), with sensitivity of 0.79 and specificity of 0.70.

Conclusions:

The 2016 ASE/EACVI guidelines for estimation of filling pressures are more user friendly and efficient than the 2009 guidelines and provide accurate estimates of LV filling pressure in the majority of patients when compared with invasive measurements. The simplicity of the new algorithm did not compromise its accuracy and is likely to encourage its incorporation into clinical decision making.

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