Toll-like receptors are important pattern recognition receptors that can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and play a critical role in innate immunity. In the present study, tlr18 was identified from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (named Cctlr18). The deduced amino acid sequence contained only a signal peptide, eight LRR (leucine-rich repeat) motifs, a transmembrane region and a TIR (Toll/IL-1 receptor) domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CcTlr18 was most closely related to Ctenopharyngodon idella Tlr18. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that Cctlr18 was constitutively expressed in all investigated tissues with the highest expression level in the skin and lowest expression in the gonad. After injection with inactivated Aeromonas hydrophila, Cctlr18 expression was significantly up-regulated in the head kidney, foregut, hindgut and skin. Moreover, significant up-regulation of Cctlr8 was observed in the spleen, head kidney, hindgut and skin after immersion with live A. hydrophila. In addition, the expression of Cctlr18 was up-regulated in PGN or flagellin-stimulated HKLs. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Cctlr18 activated NF-κB in 293 T cells and that NF-κB activity was enhanced in Cctlr18 and Ccmyd88 co-transfected cells. Furthermore, Cctlr18 could induce the expression of cytokines genes, including ifn, il-1β and il-10, in EPC cells. The results suggested that Cctlr18 plays an important role in the immune response and provides basic information for investigating the mechanisms of fish tlr18.