Nitrous Oxide 70% for Procedural Analgosedation in a Pediatric Emergency Department With or Without Intranasal Fentanyl?: Analgesic Efficacy and Adverse Events if Combined With Intranasal Fentanyl
Nitrous oxide 70% (N20 70%) is an excellent medication for procedural analgosedation in a pediatric emergency department. However, its analgesic efficacy remains uncertain for painful procedures; therefore, a combination with intranasal fentanyl (INF), an opioid, was suggested. This study aimed at observing and assessing the analgesic efficacy and rate of adverse events using N20 70% with and without INF.Methods
Children who received N20 70% in a tertiary children's hospital emergency department from January 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015 were included in this observational study with prospective data collection. Physicians decided individually whether INF was administered. Medical staff documented the child's behavior during the procedure, adverse events, and satisfaction rate.Results
A total of 442 children were included; 206 (46.6%) received INF. Group differences regarding patient behavior were not statistically significant; however, N20 70% application time was longer in the INF group (P = .02). Nausea was the most frequent adverse event with 13.1% in the INF group versus 8.1% without INF. Inadequate procedural analgosedation was documented only in the INF group, affecting 1.8% of all patients (P = .002). In contrast, anxiety was exclusively observed in the group without INF, which was presumably misjudged pain (P = .03); the satisfaction rate in the INF group was 95.6% compared with 98.7% without INF.Conclusions
Because of the study design and limitations, no conclusions about adding INF to N20 70% can be made. Additional research is needed to investigate the effect of combining N20 70% with INF.