Face and predictive validity of the ClockΔ19 mouse as an animal model for bipolar disorder: a systematic review
Mice carrying the circadian locomotor output cycles Kaput delta 19 N-ethyl-N-nitrosoure (ENU) mutation (ClockΔ19) are used as an animal model for bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to systematically review the face validity (phenotypical and pathophysiological resemblance with BD) and predictive validity (responsiveness to treatments used in BD) of this model in adherence with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. We carried out a systematic search of the databases PubMed and Embase, combining search terms covering BD and ClockΔ19. The 22 studies included in the review (from a total of 1281 identified records) show that the behavioral phenotype of the ClockΔ19 mouse is characterized by hyperactivity, decreased anxiety-like behavior, decreased depression-like behavior and increased preference for rewarding stimuli. This is highly consistent with mania in humans. Moreover, the ClockΔ19 mouse exhibits rapid mood cycling (a manic-like phenotype during the day followed by euthymia at night), which is consistent with BD. Chronic administration of lithium, a drug with well established mood-stabilizing effect in humans with BD, reverses the majority of the bipolar-like traits and most of the neurobiological abnormalities observed in the ClockΔ19 mouse. In conclusion, the ClockΔ19 mouse has substantial face validity as an animal model for BD. The predictive validity of the ClockΔ19 mouse has primarily been investigated via studies using lithium challenge. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine how the ClockΔ19 mouse responds to other mood-stabilizing treatments of BD such as valproate, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, antipsychotics, electroconvulsive therapy and various light interventions.