European guidelines on perioperative venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: Day surgery and fast-track surgery
In recent years, day surgery and fast-track surgery have experienced a continuous increase in volume. Many procedures are now performed on an outpatient protocol, including general, orthopaedic, oncological, reconstructive or vascular surgery. The management of these patients is safe, but the incidence of venous thromboembolism in this population remains unknown. Several risk factors can be identified and stratified derived from studies of inpatient surgical management (e.g. Caprini score). Recommendations for thromboprophylaxis should be tailored from the assessment of both personal and procedure-related risk factors, although with a lack of evidence for application in outpatient management. For patients undergoing a low-risk procedure without additional risk factors, we recommend only general measures of thromboprophylaxis (early ambulation, optimal hydration) (Grade 1B). For patients undergoing a low-risk procedure with additional risk factors, or a high-risk procedure without additional risk factors, we recommend general measures of thromboprophylaxis (Grade 1B) and we suggest the administration of pharmacological prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparins (Grade 2B). For patients undergoing a high-risk procedure with additional risk factors we recommend general measures of thromboprophylaxis (Grade 1B) and pharmacological prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparins over other drugs (Grade 1B), or suggest specific mechanical measures in case of increased bleeding risk (Grade 2C). Pharmacological prophylaxis should last a minimum of 7 days (Grade 1B), although in selected cases of fast-track surgery, thromboprophylaxis could be limited to hospitalisation only (Grade 2C) and in specific cases of high-risk procedures, thromboprophylaxis could be extended for up to 4 weeks (Grade 2B).