Treatment Outcome of Combined Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration and Hemoperfusion in Acute Paraquat Poisoning: A Prospective Controlled Trial

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Abstract

Objectives:

To investigate whether combined continuous venovenous hemofiltration and hemoperfusion among paraquat-poisoned patients would improve survival.

Design:

Prospective, controlled interventional study over 4 years.

Setting:

Single, tertiary, academic medical center.

Patients:

We recruited patients admitted to Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital within 48 hours after paraquat ingestion. Exclusions were under 14 years old, ingestion of paraquat with other toxicants, pregnant, a history of chronic pulmonary disease, psychosis, hyperthyroidism, or diabetes with impaired liver or renal function.

Interventions:

All patients were assigned to receive continuous venovenous hemofiltration with hemoperfusion therapy (continuous venovenous hemofiltration group) and to receive conventional therapy (conventional group). The study outcomes were death from any cause within 90 days after paraquat ingestion and the frequencies of hypoxia, acute kidney injury, or adverse events.

Measurements and Main Results:

Of the 110 enrolled patients, 59 were assigned to continuous venovenous hemofiltration group and 51 to conventional group. The two groups had similar baseline demographics and clinical features. At 90 days after paraquat ingestion, 19 of 59 patients (32.2%) in the continuous venovenous hemofiltration group and 29 of 51 patients (56.9%) in the conventional group had died (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.24–0.76; p = 0.004). In multivariable Cox proportional hazard models controlling for baseline characteristics, combined continuous venovenous hemofiltration and hemoperfusion was independently associated with reduced risk of death compared with conventional therapy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19–0.64; p = 0.001). Patients in the continuous venovenous hemofiltration group, as compared to the conventional group, had a reduced occurrence rate of hypoxia (40.7% vs 72.5%; p = 0.001) and of acute kidney injury (59.3% vs 78.4%; p = 0.03). Hypophosphatemia and thrombocytopenia were more common in the continuous venovenous hemofiltration group (p < 0.05).

Conclusions:

In patients with paraquat poisoning, treatment with combined continuous venovenous hemofiltration and hemoperfusion significantly improved 90-day survival rates.

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