Background: There are no biological markers to predict the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) levels are markedly upregulated in the proximal tubules after renal ischemia. We investigated whether urinary L-FABP is a suitable marker to predict AKI in ADHF patients. Methods: We examined 281 consecutive patients with ADHF. Serum creatinine (Cr) and L-FABP levels were measured at admission and 24 and 48 h after admission. Results: AKI developed in 104 patients (37%). Urinary L-FABP levels at admission were significantly higher in patients with AKI than in those without (33.0 vs. 5.2 μg/g Cr; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that baseline urinary L-FABP level was an independent predictor of AKI in ADHF patients (odds ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.12; p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that baseline urinary L-FABP level exhibited 94.2% sensitivity and 87.0% specificity at a cutoff value of 12.5 μg/g Cr. Conclusions: Urinary L-FABP level is useful for predicting the onset of AKI in patients with ADHF. The results of our study could help clinicians diagnose AKI in ADHF patients earlier, leading to possible improvements in the treatment of this group of patients.