Factor Structure of the Quality of Life Scale for Mental Disorders in Patients With Schizophrenia

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The Quality of Life for Mental Disorders (QOLMD) scale was designed to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with mental illness, especially schizophrenia. The QOLMD contains 45 items, which are divided into eight domains. However, the factor structure of the QOLMD has not been evaluated, which restricts the interpretations of the results of this scale.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structures (i.e., unidimensionality, eight-factor structure, and second-order model) of the QOLMD in patients with schizophrenia.


Two hundred thirty-eight outpatients with schizophrenia participated. We first conducted confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the unidimensionality of each domain. After the unidimensionality of the eight individual domains was supported, we examined the eight-factor structure and second-order model.


The results of unidimensionality showed sufficient model fit in all of the domains with the exception of the autonomy domain. A good model fit was confirmed for the autonomy domain after deleting two of the original items. The eight-factor structure for the 43-item QOLMD showed an acceptable model fit, although the second-order model showed poor model fit.

Conclusions/Implications for Practice:

Our results supported the unidimensionality and eight-factor structure of the 43-item QOLMD. The sum score for each of the domains may be used to reflect its domain-specific function. We recommend using the 43-item QOLMD to capture the multiple domains of HRQOL. However, the second-order model showed an unsatisfactory model fit. Furthermore, caution is advised when interpreting overall HRQOL using the total score for the eight domains.

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