Endothelial factors in the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic kidney disease Part I: General mechanisms
Kidney damage is a common consequence of arterial hypertension, but is also a cause of atherogenesis. Dysfunction and/or harm of the endothelium in glomeruli and tubular interstitium damage the function of these structures and translates into dynamic changes of filtration fraction, with progressive reduction in glomerular filtration rate, expansion of extracellular fluid volume, abnormal ion balance, and hypoxia, ultimately leading to chronic kidney disease. Considering the key role played by endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease, the Working Group on Endothelin and Endothelial Factors of the European Society of Hypertension and the Japanese Society of Hypertension have critically reviewed available knowledge on the mechanisms underlying endothelial cell injury. This resulted into two articles: in the first, we herein examine the mechanisms by which endothelial factors induce vascular remodeling and the role of different players, including endothelin-1, the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and their interactions, and of oxidative stress; in the second, we discuss the role of endothelial dysfunction in the major disease conditions that affect the kidney.