High-dose Versus Low-dose Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Transfusion Requirements in Pediatric Scoliosis Surgery

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Abstract

Background:

Our objective was to quantify blood loss and transfusion requirements for high-dose and low-dose tranexamic acid (TXA) dosing regimens in pediatric patients undergoing spinal fusion for correction of idiopathic scoliosis. Previous investigators have established the efficacy of TXA in pediatric scoliosis surgery; however, the dosing regimens vary widely and the optimal dose has not been established.

Methods:

We retrospectively analyzed electronic medical records for 116 patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery for idiopathic scoliosis by a single surgeon and were treated with TXA. In total, 72 patients received a 10 mg/kg loading dose with a 1 mg/kg/h maintenance dose (low-dose) and 44 patients received 50 mg/kg loading dose with a 5 mg/kg/h maintenance dose (high-dose). Estimated blood loss and transfusion requirements were compared between dosing groups.

Results:

Patient characteristics were nearly identical between the 2 groups. Compared with the low-dose TXA group, the high-dose TXA group had decreased estimated blood loss (695 vs. 968 mL, P=0.01), and a decrease in both intraoperative (0.3 vs. 0.9 units, P=0.01) and whole hospitalization (0.4 vs. 1.0 units, P=0.04) red blood cell transfusion requirements. The higher-dose TXA was associated with decreased intraoperative (P=0.01), and whole hospital transfusion (P=0.01) requirements, even after risk-adjustment for potential confounding variables.

Conclusions:

High-dose TXA is more effective than low-dose TXA in reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements in pediatric idiopathic scoliosis patients undergoing surgery.

Level of Evidence:

Level—III, retrospective cohort study.

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