Simplifying Piperacillin/Tazobactam Dosing: Pharmacodynamics of Utilizing Only 4.5 or 3.375 g Doses for Patients With Normal and Impaired Renal Function

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Objectives:To evaluate the pharmacodynamic exposure of piperacillin/tazobactam across the renal function range using 4.5 or 3.375 g dosing regimens.Methods:A 5000-patient Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to determine the probability of achieving 50% free time above the minimum inhibitory concentration (fT > MIC) for piperacillin. Proposed regimens, using solely 4.5 or 3.375 g strengths, were compared with regimens listed in piperacillin/tazobactam prescribing information over creatinine clearance (CrCl) ranges of 120 mL/min to hemodialysis. The probability of target attainment (PTA) at MICs ≤ 16 μg/mL was compared between proposed and standard regimens.Results:At CrCl 41 to 120 mL/min, prolonged infusions of 4.5 g (3 hours) and 3.375 g (4 hours) every 6 hours resulted in ≥95% PTA versus ≥76% for standard regimens (0.5 hour). At CrCl 20 to 40 mL/min, 4.5 and 3.375 g every 8 hours as prolonged infusions achieved slightly higher PTA (≥98%) versus standard regimens (≥93%). Similarly, PTA achieved with prolonged infusions of 4.5 and 3.375 g every 12 hours (≥93%) was comparable with those of standard regimens (≥91%) at CrCl 1 to 19 mL/min. In hemodialysis, 100% PTA was achieved with prolonged infusion regimens.Conclusion:Piperacillin/tazobactam regimens designed around the 4.5 or 3.375 g dose and prolonged infusions provided similar or better PTA at MICs ≤ 16 μg/mL compared with standard regimens. These observations may support the stocking and use of a single piperacillin/tazobactam strength to simplify dosing.

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