Combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation in single-session for solitary hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 7 cm

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Abstract

Aims

To evaluate technical feasibility and treatment results of combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in single-session for solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) larger than 7 cm in diameter.

Methods

Institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Between June 2007 and July 2013, 87 patients (75 men, 12 women; mean age, 55.5 years ± 15.0) with solitary HCC with a mean maximum diameter of 9.5 cm ± 2.4 (range, 7.1–13.5 cm) not feasible for surgical resection underwent combined TACE and RFA in a single-session. Immediately following TACE, RFA was performed under fluoroscopy and CB-CT guidance. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The secondary endpoints were technical safety and local tumor progression (LTP) rates. OS and time to progression (TTP) were analyzed with the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors affecting OS and TTP.

Results

Technical success of combined TACE and RFA in a single-session was achieved in all patients (100%). On 1-month follow-up MRI, complete response (CR) was observed in 76 of 87 patients (87.4 %), partial response (PR) in 8 and stable disease (SD) in 3 patients. The median follow-up period was 49.5 months (interquartile range, 30.0–70.0 months). The median OS was 39 months (range, 15–86 months). The cumulative OS rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 100%, 65.5% and 47.5%, respectively. The estimated 1, 3 and 5 year LTP rates were 0 %, 29.9% and 55.2 %, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed a tumor larger than 10.0 cm (P < 0.05) and presence of portal vein branch invasion (P < 0.05) led to the worst prognosis. No major complications were noted.

Conclusions

Combined use of TACE and RFA in single-session is a safe and effective option in the treatment of patients with solitary large HCC (> 7 cm) not amenable to surgery.

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