Combined administration of resolvin E1 and lipoxin A4 resolves inflammation in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease
Dysfunction in the resolution of inflammation may play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we found that the levels of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) in the hippocampus of 5xFAD mice are significantly lower than in non-transgenic littermates. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that treatment with resolvin E1 (RvE1) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) alone or in combination will reverse the neuroinflammatory process and decrease Aβ pathology. 5xFAD mice were treated intraperitoneally starting at 1 month of age with RvE1 or LXA4 alone or in combination at a dose of 1.5 μg/kg, 3 times a week until 3 months of age. We found that treatment with RvE1 or LXA4 alone or in combination increased the concentration of RvE1, LXA4, and RvD2 in the hippocampus as measured by ELISA. Combination treatment of RvE1 and LXA4 had a more potent effect on the activation of microglia and astrocytes than either treatment alone, measured by immunohistochemistry with Iba1 and GFAP antibodies, respectively. The concentrations of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were measured by ELISA and the percentage of Aβ plaques were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. All treatments single and in combination, decreased the measures of Aβ pathology and restored the homeostasis reversing the inflammatory process for inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES) as measured by multiplex immunoassay. Overall, the study showed that the levels of SPMs in the hippocampus of 5xFAD mice were significantly lower than in wild-type mice; that treatment with RvE1 and LXA4 restored the level of these compounds, reversed the inflammatory process, and decreased the neuroinflammation associated with Aβ pathology in 5xFAD mice.