Overcoming antibiotic resistance: Is siderophore Trojan horse conjugation an answer to evolving resistance in microbial pathogens?

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Abstract

Comparative study of siderophore biosynthesis pathway in pathogens provides potential targets for antibiotics and host drug delivery as a part of computationally feasible microbial therapy. Iron acquisition using siderophore models is an essential and well established model in all microorganisms and microbial infections a known to cause great havoc to both plant and animal. Rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial as well as fungal pathogens has drawn us at a verge where one has to get rid of the traditional way of obstructing pathogen using single or multiple antibiotic/chemical inhibitors or drugs. ‘Trojan horse’ strategy is an answer to this imperative call where antibiotic are by far sneaked into the pathogenic cell via the siderophore receptors at cell and outer membrane. This antibiotic once gets inside, generates a ‘black hole’ scenario within the opportunistic pathogens via iron scarcity. For pathogens whose siderophore are not compatible to smuggle drug due to their complex conformation and stiff valence bonds, there is another approach. By means of the siderophore biosynthesis pathways, potential targets for inhibition of these siderophores in pathogenic bacteria could be achieved and thus control pathogenic virulence. Method to design artificial exogenous siderophores for pathogens that would compete and succeed the battle of intake is also covered with this review. These manipulated siderophore would enter pathogenic cell like any other siderophore but will not disperse iron due to which iron inadequacy and hence pathogens control be accomplished. The aim of this review is to offer strategies to overcome the microbial infections/pathogens using siderophore.

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