Eosinophilic esophagitis: update on management and controversies
Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic allergen driven immune mediated disease that is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of dysphagia and foregut symptoms in children and adults. Much knowledge has been gained in recent years on the genetic and environmental risk factors for this disease, the associated inflammatory milieu, and the long term complications from esophageal remodeling. In this review we will highlight recent progress made in research into this disease, focusing on adults. We will discuss ongoing efforts to develop a minimally invasive technique that may obviate the need for repeated endoscopic assessment of disease activity. Moreover, we will review studies using novel tools such as mucosal impedance and functional lumen imaging as potential surrogate markers for mucosal integrity and esophageal remodeling. With regard to the treatment of eosinophilic inflammation, we will discuss the controversies surrounding responsiveness to proton pump inhibitors in some patients. Therapeutic trials continue to support the use of topical glucocorticoids and empiric food elimination diets as first line treatments. We will discuss ongoing efforts to optimize the elimination diet protocol to decrease the level and duration of food restrictions. Looking ahead, our growing knowledge on the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis has enabled further advancement of promising targeted biologic therapies.