Stimulators and activators of soluble guanylate cyclase for urogenital disorders
| Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), comprising storage (such as urinary incontinence and urinary frequency), voiding, and postmicturition symptoms, are highly prevalent conditions that affect millions of people worldwide. LUTS have a profound effect on quality of life and are a considerable cost to health care systems. In men specifically, BPH commonly leads to LUTS. Clinical studies also show an association of LUTS with erectile dysfunction (ED). Nitric oxide (NO) has long been recognized as an important nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) transmitter in bladder, urethra, prostate, and corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Data from clinical and basic research show that oxidation and degradation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC; also known as GCS) and reduced cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels are involved in the physiopathology of genitourinary diseases. The NO-sGC-cGMP signalling pathway has a role in disease pathophysiology of the bladder, urethra, prostate, and corpus cavernosum in animal models and humans. Advances in targeting sGC directly to enhance cGMP production independently of endogenous NO have been made using NO-independent stimulators and activators of sGC. These molecules are potential therapeutics in the treatment of LUTS and ED.