Population pharmacokinetic (popPK) modeling was used to characterize the PK profile of the oral Janus kinase (JAK)1/JAK2 inhibitor, baricitinib, in 18 patients with Mendelian interferonopathies who are enrolled in a compassionate use program. Patients received doses between 0.1 to 17 mg per day. Covariates of weight and renal function significantly influenced volume-of-distribution and clearance, respectively. The half-life of baricitinib in patients less than 40 kg was substantially shorter than in adult populations, requiring the need for dosing up to 4 times daily. On therapeutic doses, the mean area-under-the-concentration-vs.-time curve was 2,388 nM*hr, which is 1.83-fold higher than mean baricitinib exposures in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving doses of 4 mg once-daily. Dose-dependent decreases in interferon (IFN) biomarkers confirmed an in vivo effect of baricitinib on type-1 IFN signaling. PopPK and pharmacodynamic data support a proposal for a weight- and estimated glomerular filtration rate-based dosing regimen in guiding baricitinib dosing in patients with rare interferonopathies.