Neutropenic fever during peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization is associated with decreased CD34+ cell collection and increased apheresis collection days

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Abstract

Background:

Peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) mobilization with chemotherapy in addition to Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) improves cell collection compared to G-CSF alone; however, it is associated with increased risk of neutropenic fever (NF).

Methods:

We analyzed risk factors for post-priming NF and NF association with autologous stem cell transplant outcomes. Between 1998 and 2008, 593 adult patients with lymphoma underwent PBPC mobilization with etoposide and G-CSF.

Results:

Median age was 51 years (range 18–77) and 372 (63%) were male. Diagnoses were 457 (77%) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 136 (23%) Hodgkin lymphoma. Of 554 (93%) transplanted patients, majority were in complete or partial remission at time of transplant (88%). Overall, 141 (24%) patients were hospitalized for NF. Nine patients (6%) had bacteremia, 4 (3%) had pneumonia, 2 (<1%) had herpes simplex viral infections, and the remaining 126 (90%) had no identified infection source. NF patients had lower likelihood of proceeding to transplant (86% vs. 96%, P < .001), lower CD34+ cell dose collection (median 7.23 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg vs. 8.98 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg, P = .002), and were more likely to require > 4 days of apheresis (48% vs. 37%, P < .001). NF was associated with a higher 30-day readmission rate following transplant hospitalization (17% vs. 9%, P = .012).

Conclusion:

NF during etoposide priming is associated with lower likelihood of proceeding to transplant, lower CD34+ cell dose collection, more apheresis days required for collection and a higher 30-day readmission rate following transplant discharge.

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