Long-term observational studies of chronic granulomatous disease

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Purpose of review

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency, with a defect of phagocytes in killing specific pathogens. CGD is characterized by severe recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and dysregulated inflammatory response. Since its first description as fatal disease about 60 years ago, a significant improvement in outcome has been achieved in the last 20 years. The purpose of this review is to framework recent advances in CGD immunopathogenesis, management of disease manifestation and cure of CGD patients.

Recent findings

For years, CGD is a known cause of life-threatening infections and excessive inflammation. The cause and the management of inflammatory reactions, however, have not been clarified, and the range of clinical presentation is growing with corresponding novel therapeutic interventions. Recent work focuses on the best outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and gene therapy for the cure of CGD patients, more specifically, those with X-linked and p47phox mutations.


The genetics and phenotype of CGD is well characterized; however, the underlying mechanisms, the treatment of its inflammatory manifestations and the cure of CGD is under further investigation.

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