As data on chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence among Asian HIV patients has been limited, the present study aimed to estimate the CKD incidence in HIV-infected patients who received standard antiretroviral therapy in Thailand and to compare baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of the patients who developed CKD with those who do not.Design:
A multicenter, observational prospective cohort of HIV patients with normal kidney functions who received standard antiretroviral therapy.Methods:
CKD was diagnosed based on the KDIGO 2012 criteria, using Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration based estimated glomerular filtration rate with and without urine protein. The cumulative probability of CKD incidence was analyzed using Kaplan–Meier estimation.Results:
Of 5552 patients, 96 patients with pre-existing CKD and 26 patients with incomplete data were excluded, and 5430 patients were analyzed. Their mean age was 39.87 years, 41.52% were women, and 49.45% were homosexual. They were followed up for 49.41 months on average, with 229 incident cases (4.22%) being identified during 22 035 person-years at risk. Overall CKD incidence rate was 10.39 per 1000 person-years. Average time to CKD was 26.4 months (95% confidence interval: 24.44–28.83). The adjusted relative hazard significantly increased by 8.6% and 10.3% for each additional year of patient age and each additional log10 copies/ml of HIV viral load, respectively. Patients with diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia had significantly higher adjusted relative hazard (3.37 and 1.41; P < 0.001 and P = 0.014), respectively.Conclusion:
CKD incidence among the Thai HIV-infected patients was lower than in white and non-Southeast Asian populations. Diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, age, and HIV viral load were the significant risk factors.Trial registration:
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01328275.