Troponin Limit of Detection Plus Cardiac Risk Stratification Scores to Rule Out Acute Myocardial Infarction and 30-Day Major Adverse Cardiac Events in ED Patients
When screening for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), troponin levels below the 99th percentile, including those below the limit of detection (LOD), are considered normal. We hypothesized that a low-risk HEART score (0–3) or ACS Pretest Probability Assessment <2% plus a single troponin below the LOD would rule out both AMI and 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE). We studied all patients who presented to a single academic emergency department and received a troponin I (Siemens Ultra Troponin I) from September 1, 2013, to November 13, 2013 (n=888). Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from the electronic medical record. Primary outcome was a final encounter diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Secondary outcome was 30-day MACE, defined as composite of myocardial infarction, revascularization, or death from a cardiac or uncertain etiology. Sensitivities of low-risk HEART score and ACS Pretest Probability <2% alone were 98% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89%–100%) and 96% (95% CI, 86%–100%) for AMI and 94% (95% CI, 86%–98%) and 95% (95% CI, 88%–99%), respectively, for 30-day MACE. When combined with troponin below the LOD, sensitivity for AMI was 100% (95% CI, 93%–100%; difference 2%; 95% CI, −2% to 6%) for low-risk HEART Score and 100% (95% CI, 93%–100%; difference 4%; 95% CI, −1.5% to 10%) for ACS Pretest Probability <2%. When combined with troponin below the LOD, sensitivity for 30-day MACE was 100% (95% CI, 95%–100%; difference 6%; 95% CI, 1%–12%) for low-risk HEART Score and 100% (95% CI, 95%–100%; difference 5%; 95% CI, 0.2%–10%) for ACS Pretest Probability <2%. Addition of a single troponin below the LOD to these scores improves sensitivity for 30-day MACE.