Effect of Long-Term Use of Facemask With Miniplate on Maxillary Protraction in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate

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Abstract

The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the effect of a long-term use of facemask with miniplate (FM-MP) on maxillary protraction in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. The subjects were 21 CLP patients (16 unilateral CLP and 5 bilateral CLP patients), who were treated with identical lip and palate surgical method and FM-MP therapy performed by single surgeon and single orthodontist. Lateral cephalogram was taken before (T1; mean age, 11.1 years) and after maxillary protraction (T2; mean age, 16.9 years). The mean duration of FM-MP was 68.0 months. After 17 cephalometric variables were measured, statistical analysis was performed. During T1-T2, the maxilla showed significant forward movement (ΔA-vertical reference plane, 4.8 mm, P < 0.001; ΔSNA, 1.9 degree, P < 0.001; ΔA-N perp, 1.9 mm, P < 0.05), although the mandible exhibited a forward growth (ΔSNB, 1.2 degree, P < 0.05). Despite downward movement of the posterior maxilla with counterclockwise rotation (Δpalatal plane angle, −1.5 degree, P < 0.05), the mandible did not exhibit clockwise rotation but counterclockwise rotation (ΔSN to mandibular plane angle, −1.4 degree, ΔBjork sum, −1.4 degree, Δocclusal plane to SN plane angle, −1.5 degree, ΔFMA, −1.0 degree, all P < 0.05) and showed decrease in Gonial angle (−1.2 degree, P < 0.01). Although there was labioversion of the maxillary incisor (ΔU1 to SN, 4.1 degree, P < 0.05), the mandibular incisor did not exhibit significant linguoversion (ΔIMPA, −1.3 degree, P  > 0.05). Long-term use of FM-MP is effective on maxillary protraction in adolescent CLP patients without clockwise rotation of the mandible, the main drawback of conventional facemask with tooth-borne anchorage.

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