VITRECTOMY WITH SUBRETINAL TISSUE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR AND GAS TAMPONADE FOR SUBFOVEAL HEMORRHAGE: Prognostic Factors and Clinical Outcomes
To study the prognostic factors and clinical outcomes of patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy, subretinal injection of tissue plasminogen activator, and gas tamponade for the treatment of subfoveal hemorrhage (SFH).Methods:
A retrospective noncomparative interventional case series.Results:
Seventy-eight eyes from 77 patients were included. A total of 84.6% of eyes developed SFH from age-related macular degeneration. Partial or complete displacement of the SFH was achieved in 91.5% of eyes within 2 months of surgery. Visual acuity improved from 20/1,449 preoperatively to 20/390 after a mean follow-up time of 6.3 months, corresponding to approximately 5 lines of Snellen acuity improvement (P < 0.001). Better visual acuity was associated with the absence of age-related macular degeneration (P = 0.02) and less hemorrhage superior to the fovea (P < 0.001). Final visual acuity was not associated with the area of SFH (P = 0.17), use of anticoagulants (P = 0.14), or visibility of the ellipsoid layer by optical coherence tomography (P = 0.64). Nine patients (11.5%) developed a recurrence of SFH within the follow-up period. Recurrence of SFH was not associated with concurrent anticoagulant therapy (P = 0.52).Conclusion:
An etiology other than age-related macular degeneration with less hemorrhage superior to the fovea predicts a better outcome in patients with SFH treated with pars plana vitrectomy, subretinal tissue plasminogen activator, and gas tamponade.