Uniparental disomy and prenatal phenotype: Two case reports and review

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Abstract

Rationale:

Uniparental disomy (UPD) gives a description of the inheritance of both homologues of a chromosome pair from the same parent. The consequences of UPD depend on the specific chromosome/segment involved and its parental origin.

Patient concerns:

We report prenatal phenotypes of 2 rare cases of UPD.

Diagnoses:

The prenatal phenotype of case 1 included sonographic markers such as enlarged nuchal translucency (NT), absent nasal bone, short femur and humerus length, and several structural malformations involving Dandy–Walker malformation and congenital heart defects. The prenatal phenotype of Case 2 are sonographic markers, including enlarged NT, thickened nuchal fold, ascites, and polyhydramnios without apparent structural malformations.

Interventions:

Conventional G-band karyotype appears normal in case 1, while it shows normal chromosomes with a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) in case 2. Genetic etiology was left unknown until single-nucleotide polymorphism-based array (SNP-array) was performed, and segmental paternal UPD 22 was identified in case 1 and segmental paternal UPD 14 was found in case 2.

Outcomes:

The parents of case 1 chose termination of pregnancy. The neonate of case 2 was born prematurely with a bellshaped small thorax and died within a day.

Lessons:

UPD cases are rare and the phenotypes are different, which depend on the origin and affected chromosomal part. If a fetus shows multiple anomalies that cannot be attributed to a common aneuploidy or a genetic syndrome, or manifests some features possibly related to an UPD syndrome, such as detection of sSMC, SNP-array should be considered.

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