Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency with c.199-10 T>G and novel c.1A>G mutation: Two case reports and brief literature review

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Abstract

Rationale:

Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocate deficiency (CACTD) is a rare and life-threatening, autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid β-oxidation characterized by hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, cardiomyopathy, liver dysfunction, and muscle weakness; culminating in early death. To date, CACTD cases screened from the Chinese mainland population, especially patient with compound heterozygote with c.199-10T>G and a novel c.1A>G mutation in the SLC25A20 gene has never been described.

Patient concerns:

Herein, we report 2 neonatal cases of CACTD identified from the mainland China. These 2 patients were presented with severe metabolic crisis and their clinical conditions deteriorate rapidly and both died of cardiorespiratory collapse in the first week of life. We present the clinical and biochemical features of 2 probands and a brief literature review of previously reported CACTD cases with the c.199-10T>G mutation.

Diagnoses:

The acylcarnitine profiles by tandem-mass-spectrometry and the mutation analysis of SLC25A20 gene confirmed the diagnosis of CACTD in both patients. Mutation analysis demonstrated that patient No. 1 was homozygous for c.199-10T>G mutation, while patient No. 2 was a compound heterozygote for 2 mutations, a maternally-inherited c.199-10T>G and a paternally-inherited, novel c.1A>G mutation.

Interventions:

Both patients were treated with an aggressive treatment regimen include high glucose and arginine infusion, respiratory, and circulatory support.

Outcomes:

The first proband died 3 days after delivery due to sudden cardiac arrest. The second patient's clinical condition, at one time, was improved by high glucose infusion, intravenous arginine, and circulatory support. However, the patient failed to wean from mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately, her parents refused further treatment due to fear of financial burdens. The patient died of congestive heart failure in the 6th day of life.

Lessons:

We report the first 2 cases of CACTD identified from the mainland China. Apart from a founder mutation c.199-10T>G, we identified a novel c.1A>G mutation. Patients with CACTD with a genotype of c.199-10T>G mutation usually presents with a severe clinical phenotype. Early recognition and appropriate treatment is crucial in this highly lethal disorder. This case series highlights the importance of screening for metabolic diseases including CACTD in cases of sudden infant death and unexplained abrupt clinical deterioration in the early neonatal period.

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