Graves disease following radioiodine therapy for toxic adenoma: Clinical case report
There is a low risk of developing Graves disease (GD) with elevated thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) in patients undergoing radioiodine therapy for toxic adenoma.Patient concerns:
An old female patient with a history of Hashimoto thyroiditis was referred to our department due to thyrotoxic symptoms. After the administration of radioiodine, a significant remission was achieved. However, after 4 months, she was referred to our department again due to recurrence of hyperthyroid symptoms.Diagnoses:
Based on the results of laboratory test, thyroid scan and ultrasound examination, she was diagnosed as thyrotoxicosis induced by toxic adenoma at the first visit. However, 4 months later, she was diagnosed as Graves’ disease at the second visit.Interventions:
She received radioiodine therapy two times with different doses of 15 mCi and 12 mCi.Outcomes:
After the administration of 15 mCi radioiodine, her thyroid hormones and clinical symptoms showed significant improvement. However, 4 months later, she presented thyrotoxicosis again. After the second radioiodine therapy with a lower dose, her clinical symptoms moved towards normalization during regular follow up.Lessons:
Toxic adenoma and GD are considered as 2 distinct disease entities; however, radioiodine therapy for toxic adenoma may induce GD. We should learn to differentiate these 2 disorders prior to radioiodine therapy because of different treatment strategies and goals.