Refractive state and optical compositions of preterm children with and without retinopathy of prematurity in the first 6 years of life

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the refractive state and optical compositions of preterm children with and without mild retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and explore the influence of prematurity and mild ROP on the development of refractive state and optical compositions.

Preterm children who received fundus screening were recruited, and divided into ROP group and non-ROP group. Term children matched in age were also recruited as controls. Several correspondence indicators were measured before and after ciliary muscle paralysis with 1% cyclopentanone.

A total of 250 eyes from 126 patients were included for analysis. The incidence of myopia was the highest in ROP group. The incidence of hyperopia was the highest in control group. The incidence of astigmatism was the highest in ROP group. The corneal astigmatism and mean astigmatism in ROP group and non-ROP group were significantly higher than in control group. Corneal refraction in ROP was markedly higher than in non-ROP group and control group; corneal curvature in ROP group increased significantly as compared with non-ROP group and control group (P < .05). The axial eye length in ROP group and non-ROP group reduced significantly as compared with control group (P < .05). Gestational age had negative relationships with corneal astigmatism (P = .019) and astigmatism (P = .001) and positive relationship with axial eye length (P = .005). Birth weight had negative relationships with corneal astigmatism (P = .001), astigmatism (P < .001), corneal refraction (P = .001), and corneal curvature (P = .001) and positive relationships with axial eye length (P = .001) and spherical equivalent refraction (P = .039). The incidence of myopia increased and that of hyperopia reduced in children over age. In children aged 3 to 4 years, the anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous thickness, and axial eye length significantly increased as compared with those aged 5 years (P < .05); the vitreous thickness and axial eye length in children aged 5 years increased significantly as compared with those aged 6 years (P < .05).

This study shows that preterm children with and without mild ROP are more likely to develop myopia and astigmatism, and low birth weight, prematurity, and ROP may simultaneously affect the development of optical compositions, leading to myopia and astigmatism.

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